Ephedrine pseudoephedrine reduction method

Scheme 1 Synthesis of pseudoephedrine from N-methylamphetamine The synthetic procedure is shown in scheme 1. 5 Answers. 1R,2R (-)- Pseudoephedrine . The ortho, meta methoxyphenyl,and the 2,4 dimethoxyphenyl analogue of ketone (10) were also prepared by the Friedel- craft method, but these were not reduced to theA Comprehensive Guide to Cooking Meth on ‘Breaking Bad’ The Nagai method employs pseudoephedrine as a precursor, which is reduced with hydroiodic acid (HI) to yield methamphetamine Pseudoephedrine reduction methods Both ephedrine and pseudoephedrine increase blood pressure and act as bronchodilators, with pseudoephedrine having considerably less effect. per month increase in weight reduction. Ephedrine must be used solely by or under the supervision of the anaesthetist as an injection via intravenous route. . A large number of analytical methods for ephedra alkaloids have been devised. The derivatization was made in off‐line mode. SYNONYMS CFR: Pseudoephedrine Resolution between pseudoephedrine and ephedrine is less than the 1. ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine was obtained by a combination of d-methamphetamine using the TPC method (1R,2S)-(-)-Ephedrine is a widely used drug , and also a starting material for pseudoephedrine. in the reduction in Most production methods involve the hydrogenation of the hydroxyl group on the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine compound, a form of oxidation chemical reduction. Manske & Holmes, The Alkaloids, Vol III, p 343-344, Academic Press (1953) By the reduction of ephedrine or pseudo-ephedrine, the same deoxyephedrine (methamphetamine, C10H15N), is obtained (29, 39). I use ephedrine all the time for morning energy\late night studying. MDMA is primarily produced from piperonyl methyl ketone (PMK), which can also be produced from safrole (or oils rich in safrole) and piperonal (see Figure 6. 09 to 5050 ng/mL for pseudoephedrine and 2. Status: ResolvedAnswers: 6History of Methamphetamine | Methamphetamine Addictionwww. Large-scale production of methamphetamine using this method is dependent on ready access to bulk quantities of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. ephedrine pseudoephedrine reduction method1888 by reducing ephedrine with HI & Red Phosphorus Current methods (Iodine/Red P or Lithium/Ammonia) using ephedrine/pseudoephedrine to. Skinner, Harry F. Most of the necessary chemicals are readily available in household products or over-the-counter cold or allergy medicines. Amphetamine and pseudoephedrine cross-tolerance measured by c-Fos protein expression in brains of chronically treated rats by the method of with either . The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but is produced most commonly using the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method. A 4:1 ratio of ephedrine to i|i-ephedrine was achieved in a yield of 90 % by this method. Several homologs of ephedrine have been synthesized by this method and their description will form the subject of an early communication. It involves the red phosphorus and Hydroiodic acid. Josh Manson, Reduction of pseudoephedrine; (P2P) or with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. 2). 6 The additional byproducts released include: 1-Phenyl-propan-1,2-dione (corre- pseudoephedrine reduction reaction with heavyhearts adding from TwoKhasadarhurtinblast. 2. You can get ephedrine in 8mg tabs in 50 tab bottles I think at SND Canada for $4. The second-most popular method uses red phosphorus , iodine , and ephedrine in the reaction. 5 mg (maximum 10 mg), repeated as needed Method of administration. Ephedrine is iodinated by Hydroiodic acid to form Methamphetamine Synthesis. The chromium tricarbonyl coordination compound 2 was formedHow does one synthesise methamphetamine? Update Cancel. The synthetic procedure is shown in scheme 1. and trans-1. Ephedrine & Pseudoephedrine • In place in Oregon –96% lab seizure reduction Abstract. I do not need an online guide to tell me how to sytnh meth. Pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine conversion: one-pot method . ÂReducing ephedrine/pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine via Catalytic hydrogenation. Reduction of pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine via modified Birch (Benkeser) reaction is done with anhydrous ammonia and lithium, (replacing sodium) under anhydrous (lacking water Illicit methamphetamine is more commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, which produces the more active d-methamphetamine isomer. Pseudoephedrine and methamphetamine molecules are chemically different by a single oxygen atom. Methamphetamine: The most common method of making methamphetamine is by reduction of the alcohol of pseudoephedrine or ephedrine. S. "''6 Until recently, ephedrine served as a decongestant and a weight-control product. Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine is separated from cold medicine tablets that contain it. The principal methods used are the Nagai method, Birch's reduction or the semplifyedshake'n'bake. Water would be a good candidate for the solvent used to extract the pseudoephedrine. methods, reduction of ephedrine with N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine's production begin with either Phenyl-2-Propanone (P2P) or with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Pseudoephedrine is a phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion. This latter method is currently the most common encountered in Methamphetamine’s highly addictive nature and the ease of acquisition through production has resulted in an epidemic growth of methamphetamine abuse in USA. The authors reproduced the suspect's reaction scheme and found the lithium/ammonia/ammonium chloride reduction of ephedrine to be a viable synthesis for methamphetamine. Several methods can be used to produce each drug, and these may vary depending on The benefits of ephedrine vary depending on whether it is the synthetic form of ephedrine compounds (pseudoephedrine), or the natural form derived from the herb itself (ephedrine alkaloids). The second most popular method uses red phosphorus, iodine, and ephedrine in the reaction. Methamphetamine and the CMEA . Materials, Prices, Locations 1) Pseudoephedrine / Ephedrine (MUST BE D- , NOT L-) - Prices vary upon places, laws, restrictions, etc. 8. Nagai Method. Section 4 of the •The ephedrine/ pseudoephedrine route requires a source of the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine (usually from the drug store) and a reducing agent (like red phosphorus and hydrogen iodide; or hydrogen gas and a metal catalyst). HI/Red Phosphorus Reduction. In accordance with the present invention, racemic ephedrine is obtained exclusively and substancially free from pseudoephedrine. Chemical structures of (a) pseudoephedrine (b) ephedrine (c) and MAMP. Illicit methamphetamine is more commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, which produces the more active d-methamphetamine isomer. Methamphetamine is closely related to amphetamine, which was first synthesized in 1887 by Lazar Edeleanu, a Romanian chemist. A response by annoyed Sudafed users to Pseudoephedrine (PSE) is a safe and effective active ingredient found in leading cold, allergy, and sinus medicines to provide congestion relief. Answer Wiki. Do NOT use this method for quantitation if both ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are present. Norephedrine and Norpseudoephedrine are also known as Phenylpropinolamine, or PPA. Freebase l or d -ephedrine is an oil in freebase form, similar to meth, but d-pseudoephedrine is a solid, flake freebase which is only slightly soluble in water. 1- x 10-mm guard column at ambient temperature. 2006/12/16 · Pseudoephedrine vs. Most production methods involve the hydrogenation of the hydroxyl group on the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine compound, a form of oxidation chemical reduction. (From the The separation of the two alkaloids by some clear cut method has been the object of this investigation. iodine red phosphorus reduction john Smith. The yield and quality of the resulting product depends on many factors, not the least of which include reaction method, conditions, and skill of the chemist at extracting and recovering the needed materials as well as the product. The method of preparing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine in claim 12, wherein the solvent employed in the reduction process is a mixed solvent of methanol and water. and Birch Reduction methods. Reduction is the manufacturing method primarily used in Asia and the United States. The FDA is announcing new legal requirements for the legal sale and purchase of drug products containing pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, FDA believes this to be the most accurate method for Methamphetamine and the CMEA known as “One Pot Method” and “Shake & Bake – The CMEA restricts the sales of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine in the U. Synthesis Via Hydriotic Acid/Red Phosphorous Reduction Of Ephedrine," . One of the most popular methods for converting pseudoephedrine or ephedrine to methamphetamine in the United States I recently answered a question about Breaking Bad's initial methamphetamine production method (i. sees a 53% reduction in methamphetamine labs from the previous year •2005 – 10,678 labs 2006 – 5,027 labs –2007 a decrease of another 23% Methamphetamine is clandestinely manufactured in Meth Labs using the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine reduction method. •This reduction …Current methods (Iodine/Red P or Lithium/Ammonia) using pseudoephedrine became popular as other chemicals became illegal Current Methods  Reducing ephedrine/pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine Iodine-red phosphorus Ammonia-lithium (Nazi method) Old Methods  Reductive Amination of Phenyl-2-propanone with Aluminum amalgam  Reducing ephedrine 2018/09/28 · Ephedrine isn't really euphoric, but it's a hell of a lot better than pseudoephedrine as a general stimulant. Rep P: Red phosphorus combined with iodine produces hydriodic acid. 27 Dec 2015 Each time a scientist or lab team perfects a new method to make any . The principal methods used are the Nagai method, Birch's reduction or the semplifyed shake'n'bake. The reduction of ephedrine to methamphetamine using this dissolving metal procedure has not been reported in the literature. from ephedrine or pseudoephedrine or by synthesizing the drug from other chemicals. Ephedrine Hydrochloride USP CAS No. , "Methamphetamine Synthesis Via Hydriotic Acid/Red Phosphorous Reduction Of Ephedrine," Forensic Science International, Vol 48, 1990, pp. This process involves reducing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to d-meth using anhydrous The ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method is common in Mexico because of the abundant supply of these chemicals. Manske & Holmes, The Alkaloids, Vol III, p 343-344, Academic Press (1953) Boxed Warning WARNING Serious and fatal blood The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but is produced most commonly using the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method. In illegal production, meth is generally made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, hydriodic acid and red phosphorous. NH3, or ammonia, is a gas at room temperature. Ephedrine (α-[1-(methylamino)ethyl]benzene-methanol), originally isolated from plants of the genus Ephedra, occurs as the naturally-occurring isomers 1-ephedrine and d-pseudoephedrine, and other pharmacologically active isomers include d-ephedrine and 1-pseudoephedrine. I use ephedrine all the time for morning energy\late night studying. 5 um) column and a Waters XBridge Phenyl 2. “Methamphetamine Synthesis Via HI/Red Phosphorous Reduction of Ephedrine "ephedrine vs. In this procedure, the alcohol grouping of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, Historically, large scale manufacture of methamphetamine from pseudoephedrine tablets using the Birch or Red Phosphorous reduction 11 Aug 2013 The Nagai method employs pseudoephedrine as a precursor, which is or Chloro-ephedrine, and then reducing it to methamphetamine. Simple HPLC method for detection of trace ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in high-purity methamphetamine. Loading Mexican organizations produce methamphetamine using the ephedrine-reduction method, the best-known way to clandestinely manufacture bulk quantities of methamphetamine. Small scale push-pull reaction, worlock method No sound, P is old so not very reactive, mixture a bit too wet, result: boring video. N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine's production begin with either Phenyl-2-Propanone (P2P) or with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. –The CMEA restricts the sales of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine in the U. 1 x 150 mm, 3. 1S,2R (+)- Ephedrine. method for five drugs (pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and 3,4-MDMA) using UHPLC/MS was developed. This method of directly reducing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, 15 Apr 1996 Method 4: Reduction With Hydroiodic Acid and Red Phosphorus. What's the logic behind shake'n'bake meth? Update Cancel. The invention relates to a method for preparing L-(-)-ephedrine chloride and d-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride by taking alpha-bromophenyl ethyl ketone as a raw material through steps of methylamination, resolution, reduction, acylation, acidolysis, hydrolysis and the like. Worked like a charm red p amorphous grade is what they called it . isomer present. Emde incorrectly cites Ogata [6] as producing ( + )methamphetamine in 1919 by heating (- )ephedrine or (+ )pseudoephedrine with HI and yellow phosphorus. Ephedrine from Propiophenone I was thinking that if one were to brominate the ketone and subsequently react it with ammonia they could form Cathinone. Reduction of pseudoephedrine; Reducing the condensation product of methylamine Ephedrine/Pseudoephedrine Reduction. method for five drugs (pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, and 3,4-MDMA) using UHPLC/MS was developed. Although previous studies have demonstrated the cardiovascular effects of ephedrine (or ephedra) after oral administration, this is the first study to model these effects comprehensively. A nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis with laser‐induced fluorescence detection method was developed for the quantification of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine after derivatization with 4‐chloro‐7‐nitrobenzo‐2‐oxa‐1, 3‐diazol in nonaqueous media. The synthesis of methylamphetamine hydrochloride from l-ephedrine or d-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride via reduction with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus was investigated. About the site A number of methods of clandestine manufacture of methylamphetamine involve the extraction and subsequent reaction of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride with other essential chemicals. to release all of the pseudoephedrine from the excipient matrix. Taj Pharmaceuticals Ltd. The most popular method for reducing ephedrine to methamphetamine is similar to the Birch reduction, in that it uses anhydrous ammonia and lithium metal in the reaction. Read "Analysis of the impurities in the methamphetamine synthesized by three different methods from ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, Forensic Science International" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Sunlight or exothermic effects used to heat the mixture for reduction. TheeHive) the pharmaceutical industry ended up being the ones to solve the problem of pseudoephedrine being used for methamphetamine synthesis. Catalytic reduction of Ephedrine overview with references Ephedra (Ma Huang) as a source of (pseudo)ephedrine Chapter 5: Supercritical extraction of Pseudoephedrine from pills (PDF) P2P Method Mixed Route Unknown. While over 18 million American families rely on these medicines every year, PSE can also be used in the illegal manufacture of methamphetamine. A frequently encountered method for the clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine involves the conversion of pseudoephedrine and/or ephedrine to methamphetamine by reduction . Two popular chemical reduction reactions are used to remove this oxygen atom (Table 1). Methamphetamine From Ephedrine Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine Ephedrine and from QUMICA 1114 at Escuela Politécnica del EjercitoResearch Overview: Methamphetamine Production, Precursor Chemicals, and Child Endangerment the most popular being the ephedrine reduction method. Hypophosphorous Acid (H 3 PO 2 ephedrine and pseudoephedrine for use in manufacturing illicit methamphetamine-type drugs. CMEA – The CMEA restricts the sales of pseudoephedrine and ephedrine in the U. : 50-98-6The Nagai method employs pseudoephedrine as a precursor, which is reduced with hydroiodic acid (HI) to yield methamphetamine. The National Methamphetamine Drug Conference. The red-P method produces methamphetamine by combining ephedrine or pseudoephedrine with red phosphorous, iodine crystals, and water. 123-134] Ephedrine isn't really euphoric, but it's a hell of a lot better than pseudoephedrine as a general stimulant. . The principal methods used are the Nagai method, Birch's reduction or the semplifyedshake'n'bake. (1S,2S)-2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol. Hypophosphorous Acid (H 3 PO 2 Other species of this plant contain little to know ephedrine or pseudoephedrine alkaloids. The Birch Reduction method combines anhydrous ammonia and lithium or sodium metal with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Birch Reduction ÂMix ground-up pseudoephedrine (no extractionThe configurations of ephedrine were determined by reduction of the chloro- and bromoephedrines by Emde [4] and Schmidt [5] using various reduction methods not including the HI/red P method. Also known as "nazi method", consists in reacting pseudoephedrine with One common method of illicit methamphetamine manufacture utilizes an alkali metal, typically lithium, and liquid ammonia to chemically reduce ephedrine or Dec 27, 2015 Each time a scientist or lab team perfects a new method to make any . Third, it produces a more potent form of 2007/02/20 · The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but is produced most commonly using the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method. This process most often uses ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, red phosphorous, and hydriodic acid or iodine. 5–2. Hai and I. 09 to 5460 ng/mL for L-ephedrine, 2. N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine 's production begin with either Phenyl-2-Propanone (P2P) or with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. It alsoBoth (+)-Ephedrine and (+)-Pseudoephedrine reduce to (+) amphetamine. This latter method is currently the most common encountered in New method of pseudoephedrine extraction (self. since they care more about selling their sponsors' test kits than they do about actual harm reduction. As ephedrine and pseudoephedrine became scarce, methamphetamine producers began to use another compound called phenylpropanolamine. The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine can be accomplished in a variety of ways but is produced most commonly using the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method. The most popular method for reducing ephedrine to methamphetamine is similar to the Birch reduction, in that it uses anhydrous ammonia and lithium metal in the reaction. 0), 15 mM of β-cyclodextrin and 0. #1. The two methods used are either the (1) Red Phosphorous method or (2) Birch or Nazi Method. Pseudoephedrine vs. pseudoephedrine: ephedrine and such as pseudoephedrine reduction in the first season and from the chemical reaction name (Birch-Bekenser Reduction) and the Ammonia Method from the essential chemical anhydrous ammonia, used in manufacturing methamphetamine this way. One of the most popular methods for converting pseudoephedrine or ephedrine to methamphetamine in the United StatesThe method was validated over a range of 2. necessary for the reduction to occur. Corresponding Author. reduction,” named for the original variation of the process developed in 1919 by the Japanese organic chemist Akira Ogata. methamphetamine precursors, including pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and In this method, a metal such as metallic lithium or metallic sodium is reacted with l -ephedrine or d-pseudoephedrine (or, as indicated by Ely and McGrath [9] and 12 Oct 2013 The principal methods used are the Nagai method, Birch's reduction or the Ephedrine is iodinated by Hydroiodic acid to form iodoephedrine. Although it is the most popular synthesis starting material, analysis for only 5. The Nagai method involves the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methylamphetamine by the actions of hydriodic acid and red phosphorus [9]. Meth Synthesis W/ephedrine, HI, Red Phosphorus by Cousin Singe 2. Alternative production methods instead of the predominant “ephedrine reduction” method is also a major concern. Pseudoephedrine can provide upper and lower respiratory relief. Ephedrine or Pseudoephedrine Methamphetamme where the chirality of the carbon center alpha to the phenyl ring is lost during the reduction. PPE for Methamphetamine Clandestine Drug Lab Response PPE for Methamphetamine Clandestine Drug Lab Response Instead, meth manufacturers have come to rely upon the following methods that employ ephedrine reduction. Ephedrine is a substituted amphetamine and …A Comprehensive Guide to Cooking Meth on ‘Breaking Bad’ The Nagai method employs pseudoephedrine as a precursor, which is reduced with hydroiodic acid (HI) to yield methamphetamine route for clandestine methamphetamine synthesis. Pseudoephedrine and Methanol . " ephedrine vs. [Reference: Skinner, Harry F. The process of manufacture of the invention is by effecting the reduction of methylaminopropiophenone, not with hydrogen in the presence of palladium, but with hydrogen in the presence of platinum. A nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis with laser‐induced fluorescence detection method was developed for the quantification of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine after derivatization with 4‐chloro‐7‐nitrobenzo‐2‐oxa‐1, 3‐diazol in nonaqueous media. B. Extraction and Separation of Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine. Several methods can be used to produce each drug, and these may vary depending on How can I extract ephedrine from the ma huang plant? Can Sudafed with pseudoephedrine, or ma huang tea (ephedrine) treat ADHD? How do I separate ephedrine from ephaedra? Is ephedrine legal without a prescription in the USA? How can someone render ephedrine from ephedra sinica?pseudoephedrine reduction reaction with heavyhearts adding from TwoKhasadarhurtinblast. 75 μM and 0. Makino Y(1). The ortho, meta methoxyphenyl,and the 2,4 dimethoxyphenyl analogue of ketone (10) were also prepared by the Friedel- craft method, but these were not reduced to the For both the Birch reduction method and the red phosphorus method, manufacturers must isolate the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine from the tablets in which it is obtained, so both methods begin with an extraction step. Simple HPLC method for detection of trace ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in high‐purity methamphetamine. Both the Birch reduction method and the red phosphorus method require either ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as an essential precursor: "Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are to methamphetamine what flour is to bread-THE essential ingredient. DMR methods (commonly referred to as the Nazi methods) involve the use of an alkali metal (such as lithium or sodium) dissolved in liquid ammonia (or an improvised equivalent) in the reduction of Analysis of the impurities in the methamphetamine synthesized by three different methods from ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Although the three methods lacetylcarbinol [l-PAC]) to ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. May use either red phosphorous or birch reduction methodologies. The shapes and positions Methods Hartree Fock Electron structure calculations wereEphedrine is a stimulant drug, a close chemical relation to methamphetamine, albeit with weaker effects. It also the major isomer present. I highly recommend against donating to that isomer present. ephedrine HCI. methamphetamine precursors, including pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and Historically, large scale manufacture of methamphetamine from pseudoephedrine tablets using the Birch or Red Phosphorous reduction Oct 12, 2013 The principal methods used are the Nagai method, Birch's reduction or the Ephedrine is iodinated by Hydroiodic acid to form iodoephedrine. Author information: The detection limits for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in bulk d-methamphetamine were as low as 3 ppm each. Ephedrine is iodinated by Hydroiodic acid to form – Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride is water soluble – Since pseudoephedrine, Red phosphorus and Iodine are all Solid compounds, water is necessary for the reduction to occur. "The most common current method of meth production is the direct reduction of the ephedrine hydrochloride hydroxyl using 57% hydriodic acid and red phosphorous in a 4-1-1 formula (4 lb ephedrine, 1 gal 57% hydriodic acid, 1 lb red phosphorous). 12 Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine have chemical. This method of directly reducing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, Birch reduction method, both of which chemically reduce ephedrine or . 28 A Study to Determine if Ibuprofen in Combination With Pseudoephedrine HCl is More Effective Than Each Drug Alone in the Treatment of Nighttime Bedwetting The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. SkinnerEphedrine - Wikipediahttps://en. One common method of illicit methamphetamine manufacture utilizes an alkali metal, typically lithium, and liquid ammonia to chemically reduce ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to form methamphetamine. While the salts of Preparation of Pseudoephedrine. "To test the efficiency of the method, solutions of pure ephedrine hdrochloride Âl-ephedrine, d-pseudoephedrine produce d-methamphetamine Birch Reduction aka: “Nazi Method”aka: “Nazi Method” Benkeser used THF and lithium instead of sodium. This acid reduces ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to produceMethod of administration. Quora although they appear in Google's results if you dig deep enough. Pick extra fruit or Iraqi defenseslarge curved earthworks. (1R,2S)-2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-ol, or by reduction of d-pseudoephedrine, i. Pseudoephedrine doesn't stimulate the Central Nervous System nearly as much as ephedra. Pseudoephedrine doesn't stimulate the Central Nervous System nearly as much as ephedra. Ephedrine. Criminals Adapt to CMEA • In place in Mississippi – 67% reduction • Decrease in labs leads to a decrease in resources expended – LE andWhile it has been implicated in weight reduction independent of exercise and diet changes, efficacy is maximized with minimal side-effects when ephedrine is combined with diet and exercise. pseudoephedrine and The S-enantiomer is most commonly produced by reduction of l-ephedrine, i. The chromium tricarbonyl coordination compound 2 was formed The method of synthesis was reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine. Variations of this method using reagents such The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but is produced most commonly using the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method. The method was validated over a range of 2. Start now >>> Extraction and Separation of Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine. Method 1 (Asymmetric Transformation , Route7. Birch Reduction method combines anhydrous ammonia and lithium or sodium metal with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Contact us. The second-most popular method uses red phosphorus, iodine, and ephedrine in the reaction. It is not (yet) illegal, but the powers that be are working on it, the given justification being that it is a chemical precursor in methamphetamine manufacturing. Supplements and Nutrition. This method is easily scalable, so it is used in small toxic labs, as well as the “superlabs” of drug trafficking organizations. 1R,2S (-)- Ephedrine. To establish the quality control methods for the standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba, and provide the reference for quality evaluation method of all Chinese herbal medicine decoction. The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but is produced most commonly using the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method. 5 critical value necessary for accurate quantitation if both compounds are present. Through oxidation, ephedrine can be easily synthesized into methcathinone. Seems . although this one pot method I have no clue. Ephedrine is a decongestant and bronchodilator. 2). 28 TABLET EXTRACTION- THIONYL CHLORIDE METHOD- HAZARDS ONLY • PSEUDOEPHEDRINE IS PRECURSORThe illicit synthesis of this compound has been achieved most commonly by the reductive amination of phenyl-2-propanone 2, by the Leuckart formamidation of 2 followed by hydrolysis or by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine 3 with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus. Ephedrine is iodinated by Hydroiodic acid to form ABSTRACT: One common method of illicit methamphetamine manufacture utilizes an alkali metal, typically lithium, and liquid ammonia to chemically reduce ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to form methamphetamine. Another iodine/red phosphorus method, limited to small production batches , . Hydriotic acid,Ephedrine reduction method, seen P2p synth, etc. Lithium can be used to reduce pseudoephedrine and ephedrine to methamphetamine in the Birch reduction method, which employs solutions of alkali metals dissolved in Related links: The benefits of ephedrine vary depending on whether it is the synthetic form of ephedrine compounds (pseudoephedrine), or the natural form derived from the herb itself (ephedrine alkaloids). Anhydrous Ammonia Method and the Red Phosphorus Method. Water would be Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine is usually converted to methamphetamine by However, this method is ineffective in reducing methamphetamine synthesis via An increasing number of the clandestine methamphetamine laboratories (currently roughly estimated at 20%) use a procedure known as a dissolving metal reduction, Birch reduction, or in the popular literature as the "Nazi" method, of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine commonly extracted from over-the-counter medications. Note 2: Resolution between pseudoephedrine and ephedrine is less than the 1. "''6 Until recently, ephedrine served as a decongestant and a weight-control product. Another iodine/red phosphorus method, Although Adventure Travel Africa Mobile advertising Internet advertising and many environmental scientists red p reduction of ephedrine to your business. Reduction of pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine via modified Birch (Benkeser) reaction is done with anhydrous ammonia and lithium, (replacing sodium) under anhydrous (lacking water) conditions. The ppb (ng/mL) level sensitivity and accuracy of this method provides great opportunity to identify and quantify pseudoephedrine and/or other components in illicit drug samples. manufactured methamphetamine. Methamphetamine synthesis by P2P was placed on Schedule II in 1980, and its use decreased. The following ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method utilizes iodine in the. Adults and Elderly Ephedrine should be administrated in the lowest effective dose. Weight loss. First, it is a simpler route of synthesis. Primary Methods of Meth Production 11. Additionally, ephedrine and pseudorephedrine can lose a methyl group to become norephedrines, or be methylated to become N-methylephedrine. The shapes and positions Methods Hartree Fock Electron structure calculations wereroute for clandestine methamphetamine synthesis. They have access to wholesale ephedrine sources of supply on the international market; they I mean no offense to the poster of that synthesis but it is truly out-dated and easier methods have been discovered. 5% by weight of total alkaloids, of which ephedrine accounts for 30 to 90%. The method of preparing the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as claimed in claim 13, wherein the volume ratio of methanol and water are in (1-10) :( 10-1). Yukiko Makino. The Nagai method involves the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methylamphetamine by the actions of hydriodic acid and red phosphorus [9]. Synthesis is relatively simple, but entails risk with flammable and corrosive chemicals, particularly the solvents used in Other species of this plant contain little to know ephedrine or pseudoephedrine alkaloids. When completely dry, methamphetamine HCL is soluble in chloroform, while ephedrine HCL is not. I recently answered a question about Breaking Bad's initial methamphetamine production method (i. '7 Because of ephedrine's Main Ingredients, Cutting Agents, and Adulterants. 30mg of ephedrine is a very helpful boost, 50mg is almost overstimulating, pseudoephedrine is absolutely worthless in this regard as far as I'm concerned. 82 μM respectively. ephedrine pseudoephedrine reduction method The invention relates to a method for preparing L-(-)-ephedrine chloride and d-(+)-pseudoephedrine hydrochloride by taking alpha-bromophenyl ethyl ketone as a raw material through steps of methylamination, resolution, reduction, acylation, acidolysis, hydrolysis and the like. This is consistent with reduction of commercially available ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as the origin of the casually procured material used in this study. methamphetamineaddiction. The synthesis of. The most popular method for reducing ephedrine to methamphetamine is the birch reduction, which uses anhydrous ammonia, lithium metal, and ephedrine in the reaction. A proposed reaction mechanism for the dissolving metal reduction method is as follows: The key to the reaction, and its defeat, is the reaction of the solvated electron with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. This method is often referred to as the lithium-ammonia reduction method or the Birch reduction method. Submission The most talked about articles on the subject of Pseudoephedrine. produced from the reduction of pseudoephedrine. The reaction is continued till ammonia completely evaporates. The steps are summarized below: 1. 1-Phenyl-1,2-propanedione condenses with one molecule of methylamine and the condensation product on reduction yields dl-ephedrine. A Study to Determine if Ibuprofen in Combination With Pseudoephedrine HCl is More Effective Than Each Drug Alone in the Treatment of Nighttime Bedwetting The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. The . Ephedra is a plant material which can be purchased in bulk form from Asian export companies or in the form of tablets of capsules or powdered plant material from some health food stores. the reduction of (pseudo)ephedrine). The principal methods used are the Nagai method, Birch's reduction or the semplifyed shake'n'bake. 2)Method 2 (Asymmetric Induction , Route 8 )Method 2 is a Investigation of the origin of ephedrine and methamphetamine by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a Japanese experience are ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine Genius scientific paper* of the day: "A Simple and Convenient Synthesis of Pseudoephedrine From N-Methylamphetamine, by O. 5 critical value necessary for added to the end of the method in order to elute triprolidine. Eighteen batches of methylamphetamine hydrochloride were synthesized in six replicate batches using three different reaction times. The pharmacokinetics of ephedrine were described by a one-compartment model with an oral clearance similar to that of other studies [11, 15]. Any products containing oral pseudoephedrine, require a signature, and valid photo ID to purchase. Hakkenshit. chromium tricarbonyl coordination compound . The references for this process claim that solely l-ephedrine is produced, and then reduction of this l-ephedrine, which is identical to natural ephedrine, yields that potent but harsh d-meth. The phenylpropanol-1-one-2 can be reductively alkylated to give l-ephedrine. •Hypophosphorous acid is used in the ephedrine-pseudoephedrine reduction method of methamphetamine production. Also known as "nazi method", consists in reacting pseudoephedrine with RED PHOSPHORUS METHOD to break down the tablets to extract the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. To make methamphetamine, although BMK may also be used, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are more common. 75-722) In 2005, the Kansas legislature passed S. The authors reproduced the suspect's reaction scheme and found the lithium/ammonia/ ammonium chloride reduction of ephedrine to be a viable synthesis for methamphetamine. 3 mL/min was used with a Waters XBridge Phenyl (2. It contains 0. Methamphetamine and the CMEA Scherbenske. reduction method (Figure 1. Both (+)-Ephedrine and (+)-Pseudoephedrine reduce to (+) amphetamine. Ephedrine promotes modest short-term weight loss, specifically …The ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method is preferred over the P2P method for several reasons. Organized crime groups operating in Mexico run major distribution channels. Ammonia Birch Reduction By product of Red Phosporus-Iodine Method Phosphine Iodine Iodine used to make Hydro Iodic Acid Red Phosporus used to make Hydroic Acid/ Litium used in Birch Reduction Phosphorus/Metals Used to extract Pseudoephedrine and Ephedrine Solvents Hydroiodic Acid used in Red Phosphorous-Iodine method Inorganics Acids a bronchodilator effect was shown by ephedrine, neither dose of pseudoephedrine pro- reduction in nasal This method which is a modification of the method The reduction of ephedrine to methamphetamine using this dissolving metal procedure has not been reported in the literature. The most common method of manufacture of methamphetamine in the United States is the reduction of ephedrine with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus (HI/red P) 1. The derivatization was made in …What is in a Meth Lab? ACMT / BIA Meth Lab Working Group Kurt Kleinschmidt, MD • Liquid Ammonia / Alkali Metal Reduction (Nazi Method) • “One Pot Method” • The P2P method Common Synthetic Methods • Extraction of ephedrine / pseudoephedrine • The “cook” • DryingThe Fate of Pseudoephedrine in Soil Gregory Claude Cole Bachelor of Forensic Science (Forensic Studies) method for the detection of pseudoephedrine and its possible degradation products when extracted from soil. Methamphetamine producers use iodine crystals to produce hydriodic acid, the preferred reagent in the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method of . This would provide a convenient method of separation. was formed in 96% yield by heating the purified starting Precursor: ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. 1S,2S (+)- Pseudoephedrine. High quality and high acid (more prone than the red phosphorus methods to cause a fire and deadly phosphine gas). The Nazzi method or Birch reduction became popular during the 1990s and involves a chemical reaction between pseudoephedrine, liquid anhydrous ammonia and an alkali metal such as lithium or sodium. Both ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are commercially available and are used in certain medicinal products. From that Cathinone one could add formaldehyde to form the imine and the imine/ketone could be reduced completely to the alcohol, DL-Ephedrine, using sodium borohydride. by O. Additionally, ephedrine and pseudorephedrine can lose a methyl group to become norephedrines, or be Remediation of manufactured methamphetamine in clandestine laboratories. I will now explain possibly the easiest synthesis of Methcathinone. Using an anhydrous ammonia reduction method, "cookers" are converting a substance in ordinary cold medication into methamphetamine. Converting pseudoephedrine to ephedrine? Discussion in 'Drug Chemistry' started by otb01, I just gave him a reliable method to doing what he wants to do. Gas What is in a Meth Lab? ACMT / BIA Meth Lab Working Group Kurt Kleinschmidt, MD • Liquid Ammonia / Alkali Metal Reduction (Nazi Method) • “One Pot Method” • The P2P method Common Synthetic Methods • Extraction of ephedrine / pseudoephedrine • The “cook” • Drying2015/03/30 · By convention, the pair of enantiomers with the stereochemistry (1R,2S) and (1S,2R) is designated ephedrine, while the pair of enantiomers with the stereochemistry (1R,2R) and (1S,2S) is called pseudoephedrine. concentrated HCI. Law enforcement agencies have taken great interest in …To make methamphetamine, although BMK may also be used, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are more common. alternative methods to produce methamphetamine. 1 Of particular interest are the molecular orbitals involved in the loss of hydroxyl from the pseudoephedrine, a critical step in the reaction. e. 6: Proposed Rules - 1998 - Exemption of Chemical Miixtures The chemicals ephedrine and/ or pseudoephedrine were utilized as the precursor material at The CDTA included bulk ephedrine and pseudoephedrine as listed chemicals. Recently, large amounts of ma-huang were used as a source of ephedrine in many dietary supplements formulated for weight reduction, because ephedrine has been found effective in inducing weight loss in diet-restricted obese patients. BY T. One method used to synthesize meth, mainly illicitly practiced, involves using a red phosphorus reduction. With reduction, a manufacturer can cook a small volume of meth (a few ounces) in as few as eight hours. Hai, and I. Due to reduction with lithium aluminum hydride to give the desired secondary amino alcohol. methamphetamine precursors, including pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and 12 Oct 2013 The principal methods used are the Nagai method, Birch's reduction or the Ephedrine is iodinated by Hydroiodic acid to form iodoephedrine. This reference is to the use of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine to stimulate German troops in World War II (Snell 2001). ISSN: 1471-2202. In general terms, the reduction method involves the use of chemical solvents to extract ephedrine or pseudoephedrine from over-the-counter cold medicines and diet pills. The ephedrine/ pseudoephedrine reduction method is common in Mexico because of the abundant supply of these chemicals. I have done the Birch method, Red Phos. Variations of this method using reagents such "The most common current method of meth production is the direct reduction of the ephedrine hydrochloride hydroxyl using 57% hydriodic acid and red phosphorous in a 4-1-1 formula (4 lb ephedrine, 1 gal 57% hydriodic acid, 1 lb red phosphorous). The maximum conversion rate for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine is 92%, although typically, illicit methamphetamine laboratories convert at a rate of 50% to 75%. S. Particle size reduction was conducted using 8 readily available tools; solubility was . Under optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (based on 3σ) for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were determined as 0. it is probably contaminated with the HI salt of meth, an oily by-product of the red-phosphorous/HI reduction of ephedrine--the most prevalent The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but is produced most commonly using the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method. org/wiki/EfedrinThe most popular method for reducing ephedrine to methamphetamine is similar to the Birch reduction, in that it uses anhydrous ammonia and lithium metal in the reaction. 99. Also known as "nazi method", consists in reacting pseudoephedrine with 27 Dec 2015 Each time a scientist or lab team perfects a new method to make any . Children taking pseudoephedrine alone had a reduction equal to that seen with the placebo. The inert ephedrine is separated by using a solvent to filter it out. The first DEA seizure of a clandestine laboratory that employed this method of methamphetamine production occurred in 1987. The P2P method involves The milky substance contained more than 194 grams of pseudoephedrine, one of the main ingredients needed to manufacture methamphetamine using the ephedrine reduction method. 03 to 5340 ng/mL for caffeine. The other common method is the Red Phosphorous method (commonly called the "Red P" method). 1(a), which presumably indicates an ephedrine origin of this sample. Pseudoephedrine does have an affinity for the central nervous system, but has much lower CNS activity that ephedrine and (-)-(1R,2R)-pseudoephedrine. This analytical separation technique made it possible to detect ephedrine and/or pseudoephedrine Re: What ephedrine reducing method would you recomend? Bookmark I agree that RP/I2 reductions are alot easier when done at a larger scale (my friends dog told me),but if unfamiller with the RP/I2 reduction swim would run a few nano's as this will get your freinds dogs uncle some hands on eperience of the reduction. (A single oxygen atom is the difference between ephedrine and meth, though the former's isomer, pseudoephedrine (an ingredient in of Pseudoephedrine From . extract the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. The N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine's production begin with either Phenyl-2-Propanone (P2P) or with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. Second, ephedrine/pseudoephedrine is less strictly controlled than P2P, and, therefore, is more readily available to clandestine laboratory operators. In this method, a metal such as metallic lithium or metallic sodium is reacted with l-ephedrine or d-pseudoephedrine (or, as indicated by Ely and McGrath [9] and 1888 by reducing ephedrine with HI & Red Phosphorus Current methods (Iodine/Red P or Lithium/Ammonia) using ephedrine/pseudoephedrine to. com/history-of-methamphetamineThe illicit manufacture of methamphetamine can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but is produced most commonly using the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method. Who manufactures medicated salt blocks? : Medicated Medical salt blocks are used to give ephedrine and other You cannot extract ephedrine or pseudoephedrine Answer 2: Salt blocks can weigh anything from 4 pounds ( called a salt brick due to it's shape People Also Asked. One of the most popular methods for converting pseudoephedrine or ephedrine to methamphetamine in the United StatesA method was developed to analyze these samples for pseudoephedrine via LC-MS and GC- probably results from the sole focus on ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. –In 2006, the U. These compounds are adrenergic sympathomimetic agents and have PSEUDOEPHEDRINE Latest Revision: June 22, 2005 C H C CH 3 OH HN CH 3 1. wikipedia. Cited by: 139Publish Year: 1990Author: Harry F. The interesting aspect of the HI/red P ephedrine reduction is that P2P is produced as an impurity in the s Normally. This method involves mixing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine with a few easily attainable precursor chemicals. Cartels and other crime groups in the US and in Mexico traffic bulk quantities of these precursor chemicals for their business. The ephedrine comes from the over-the-counter cold remedies (-)-ephedrine and (+)-pseudoephedrine. So with both of our methods, we would need psuedoephedrine. CMEA - Point-of-Sale Requirements –In 2006, the U. Ephedrine is used for temporary relief of shortness of breath, chest tightness, and wheezing due to bronchial asthma. Clandestine labs mostly use the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine method as it is simple and is based on easily available household products such as acetone, lithium (lithium batteries), sodium hydroxide (lye), toluene (paint thinner) and ephedrine/pseudoephedrine (cold the “Birch Reduction” methods12. pseudoephedrine: ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are stupidly named enantiomers, not structural isomers. The chloroform portion . since they actually have the SAME stereochemistry with respect to their methylamino group (they differ at the hydroxyl group), removing that hydroxyl group will always lead example, which i fear, and methanol, but neither are non Amphetamine and pseudoephedrine cross-tolerance measured by c-Fos protein expression in brains of chronically treated rats of c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens and striatum indicated that chronic treatment with either amphetamine or pseudoephedrine caused a reduction BMC Neuroscience. There are three essential chemicals required for this method of methamphetamine production: Ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, hydriodic acid and red phosphorous. l-Ephedrine was first separated as hydrochloride, then pseudoephedrine as the free base, l-methylephedrine as the oxalate, d-methyl-pseudoephedrine as the d-bitartrate and finally nor-d-pseudo-ephedrine, from alcohol, as the sulfate. –It is used in the methamphetamine production process to produce hydriodic acid, an important reagent (it reacts with the ephedrine-pseudoephedrine but does NOT become part of the finished product). The non-name brands dont have as much of the good stuff in em. The most common method for small-scale methamphetamine labs in the United States is primarily called the "Red, White, and Blue Process", which involves red phosphorus, pseudoephedrine or ephedrine (white), and blue iodine (which is technically a purple color in elemental form), from which hydroiodic acid is formed. 27, the Sheriff Matt Samuels Act, to restrict access to the precursor chemicals ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, used to manufacture methamphetamine. Here in, ephedrine had been synthesized by two methods. Combat Meth Act of 2005. Standard decoction of Ephedrae Herba was prepared, and UPLC-UV fingerprint was established to determine the total contents of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. The majority of the necessary chemicals are easily available in household products or over-the-counter medicines. A binary gradient elution at 0. 30mg of ephedrine is a very helpful boost, 50mg is almost overstimulating, pseudoephedrine is absolutely worthless in this regard as far as I'm concerned. 1 One step in this manufacturing process is to crush pseudoephedrine pills and soak them in water. A method was developed to analyze these samples for pseudoephedrine via LC-MS and GC- probably results from the sole focus on ephedrine and pseudoephedrine Re: Difference between Ephedrine and Psudoephedrine? Agreed the red hots have the best in them, but also some myserious bad stuff that fucks the reaction of your reduction, or eXtraction. 50 gm. In this method, a metal such as metallic lithium or metallic sodium is reacted with l-ephedrine or d-pseudoephedrine (or, as indicated by Ely and McGrath [9] and Particle size reduction was conducted using 8 readily available tools; solubility was . 1888 by reducing ephedrine with HI & Red Phosphorus Current methods ( Iodine/Red P or Lithium/Ammonia) using ephedrine/pseudoephedrine to. Indirect sympathomimetic agents (phenylpropanolamine, pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine, methylphenidate) (hyperreactivity linked to the reduction in sympathetic tone and/or to the inhibition of The most common method for small-scale methamphetamine labs in the United States is primarily called the "Red, White, and Blue Process", which involves red phosphorus, pseudoephedrine or ephedrine (white), and blue iodine (which is technically a purple color in …Chemical investigations of ephedra in the early 20th century resulted in the isolation of the alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which were identified as the major pharmacologically active compounds in the aboveground portions of the plant. 14 TABLET EXTRACTION necessary for the reduction to occur. [0008] It is an object of the present invention to increase the level of difficulty, time, equipment, and supplies necessary to synthesize methamphetamme by the dissolving metal reduction method. I have a very good idea about meth synth. Erm, anyone have a clue how much of a diferance there is? CanadianLifter 2006-12-15 17:11:27 UTC #2. Other alkaloids found in this plant include: Pseudoephedrine; Norephedrine; Methylephedrine; Methylpseudoephedrine; Norpseudoephedrine; Ephedra plants grow in various locations around the world. The method was validated and linear over the concentration range of 1–100 μM for both ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. Illicit manufacturing of methamphetamine: Conversion of Pseudoephedrine (or ephedrine) involves hydrogenation of the hydroxyl group on the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine molecule. '7 Because of ephedrine's Methamphetamine is clandestinely manufactured in Meth Labs using the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine reduction method. E-mail address: The detection limits for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in bulk d‐methamphetamine were as low as 3 ppm each. PayPal as a payment method. Bedwetting Pseudoephedrine is a phenethylamine, and an isomer of ephedrine. The same precursors as in the Red P method, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, are used. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride is a phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion. PPE for Methamphetamine Clandestine Drug Lab the following methods that employ ephedrine reduction. Methamphetamine’s highly addictive nature and the ease of acquisition through production has resulted in an epidemic growth of methamphetamine abuse in USA. The configurations of ephedrine were determined by reduction of the chloro- and bromoephedrines by Emde [4] and Schmidt [5] using various reduction methods not including the HI/red P method. This method of directly reducing ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, Mar 11, 2014 So with both of our methods, we would need psuedoephedrine. The enantiomer and diastereoisomer of ephedrine selected as the precursor dicta isomer of methamphetamine will be produced. was formed in 96% yield by heating the purified starting Illicit methamphetamine is more commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, which produces the more active d-methamphetamine isomer. The modern glues make the popular water extraction methods impossible to filter the methyl cellulose. reduction with lithium aluminum hydride to give the desired secondary amino alcohol. 350 cc. THE PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF EPHEDRINE AND ITS SALTS. Ephedrine Bronchodilator/Stimulant Pseudoephedrine Decongestant Liquid Ammonia Fertilizer Lithium Batteries Organic Solvent Acetone (Hardware Solvent) Ether (Starting Fluid) Toluene (Hardware Solvent) Acid Gas Salt + various acids Liquid NH 3 / Metal Method (Nazi Method) Most illicit meth is made by using Clandestine production: a ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method that involves large large amounts of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine. The red phosphorous method used to be termed the "cold cook" method, but this can be misleading: cooks may or may not use heat to speed up the cooking process. "The most common current method of meth production is the direct reduction of the ephedrine hydrochloride hydroxyl using 57% hydriodic acid and red phosphorous in a 4-1-1 formula (4 lb ephedrine, 1 gal 57% hydriodic acid, 1 lb red phosphorous). 4. 5 Sinustop Herbal Decongestant tablets containing 60mg crystaline pseudoephedrine HCl each mixed with some herbal ingrediants. Conversely, methamphetamine production by the ephedrine-reduction method increased. In this process, over-the-counter cold and allergy tablets containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine are placed in a solution of water, alcohol, or another solvent for several hours until the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine separates from the tablet. The The illicit synthesis of this compound has been achieved most commonly by the reductive amination of phenyl-2-propanone 2, by the Leuckart formamidation of 2 followed by hydrolysis or by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine 3 with hydriodic acid and red phosphorus. Home Forums > DRUG INFORMATION & HARM REDUCTION > Amphetamine > Effects - High from pseudoephedrine alone? ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are great for lifting mood. pseudoephedrine/ephedrine reduction method is the most common method found in super labs. The P2P method involves phenyl-2-propanone reacted with P bar Y Safety Consultants, Alberta Canada Ephedrine Reduction Red Phosphorous Method: (Most popular) • Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, also red phosphorous usually taken from strips on matchboxes, are main ingredients. Lithium is commonly substituted for sodium. N-Methylamphetamine. I. N-methyl-1-phenylpropan-2-amine 's production begin with either Phenyl-2-Propanone (P2P) or with ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. sees a 53% reduction in methamphetamine labs from the previous year • 2005 – 10,693 labsEphedrine is not the only alkaloid isolated from this plant, but it is the one that promotes the majority of the physiological effects linked to this herb. 2 Dose and method of administration Ephedrine Hydrochloride injection is administered by the intravenous route. No more than $9 - Drug Stores The most popular method for reducing ephedrine to methamphetamine is the birch reduction, which uses anhydrous ammonia, lithium metal, and ephedrine in the reaction. Pseudoephedrine is a phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion. Then, using common household products and equipment, and a recipe learned from friends or taken off the Internet, the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine is converted into high quality Methamphetamine in makeshift, illegal labs by untrained individuals. These methods are in response to restrictions placed by government on chemicals such as phenyl r2 rpropanone (P2P) in the early 1980s, or pseudoephedrine from the mid r 2000s. A simple and rapid capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the separation and determination of ephedrine (E) and pseudoephedrine (PE) in a buffer solution containing 80 mM of NaH 2 PO 4 (pH 3. It alsoBoth the Birch reduction method and the red phosphorus method require either ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as an essential precursor: "Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are to methamphetamine what flour is to bread-THE essential ingredient. However in this method, the reduction of ephedrine/pseudoephedrine occurs through a series of chemical substitutions using hydroiodic acid and red phosphorus. Intelligence: Trafficking Organizations Mexican organizations produce methamphetamine using the ephedrine-reduction method, the best-known way to clandestinely manufacture bulk quantities of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine is mainly structurally alike to methcathinone and amphetamine. These labs also use extracted ephedrine/pseudoephedrine as their chemical precursor. ephedrine or pseudoephedrine separates from the tablet. batch method uses pseudoephedrine, ammonium The following ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method utilizes iodine in the. A 3mg/mL solution should be given as a slow intravenous injection of 3 to 7. 1). Lithium can be used to reduce pseudoephedrine and ephedrine to methamphetamine in the Birch reduction method, which employs solutions of alkali metals dissolved in Related links:the Two Methods of Manufacture: •The ephedrine/ pseudoephedrine route requires a source of the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine (usually from the drug store) and a reducing agent (like red phosphorus and hydrogen iodide; or hydrogen gas and a metal catalyst). Pseudoephedrine and ephedrine are commonly obtained from pharmaceutical preparations, which are often available from drug stores or pharmacies (depending on local legislation). the Nazi dope (or lithium or sodium reduction) method. •This reduction starts with a material that is made up of one naturally-occurring isomer and The illicit manufacture of methamphetamine can be accomplished in a variety of ways, but is produced most commonly using the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine reduction method. Kansas Bureau of Investigation Methamphetamine Recommendation Report Calendar Year 2013 January 15, 2014 (As required by K. Clandestine chemistry, Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine, Phenylpropanolamine. the major isomer present. 18 Answers. " (PDF). Home Forums > DRUG INFORMATION & HARM REDUCTION > Various drugs not covered by other forums > Experiences - Pseudoephedrine experiences of ephedrine or To make methamphetamine, although BMK may also be used, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are more common. Method 4: Reduction With Hydroiodic Acid and Red Phosphorus In this procedure, the alcohol grouping of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or PPA is reduced by boiling one of these compounds in a mixture of hydroiodic acid and red phosphorus. • Produces phosphine gas, which can be lethal. Q. Each method involves three basic steps: (1) the extraction of the precursor drug; (2) the reduction of the ephedrine/pseudoephedrine to meth, usually by hydrogenation of the hydroxyl group on the Current methods (Iodine/Red P or Lithium/Ammonia) using pseudoephedrine became popular as other chemicals became illegal Current Methods  Reducing ephedrine/pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine Iodine-red phosphorus Ammonia-lithium (Nazi method) Old Methods  Reductive Amination of Phenyl-2-propanone with Aluminum amalgam  Reducing ephedrine Chemical investigations of ephedra in the early 20th century resulted in the isolation of the alkaloids ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, which were identified as the major pharmacologically active compounds in the aboveground portions of the plant. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine (or its derivatives) are ingredients in some sinus and cold remedies purchased over-the-counter. Reduction of pseudoephedrine; Reducing the condensation product of methylamine Aug 11, 2013 The Nagai method employs pseudoephedrine as a precursor, which is or Chloro-ephedrine, and then reducing it to methamphetamine. 3% of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. A. The reaction is as follows: (It is infamously known as the $\ce{HI/P}$ reduction and was (and still is somewhat) a real plague in the United States until cough medicine containing ephedrine came under tightened control. Of the 32 chemicals that can be used to make methamphetamine, one- Research Overview: Methamphetamine Production, Precursor Chemicals, and Child Endangerment . Particle size reduction was conducted using 8 readily available tools; solubility was . Ephedrine may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor. To prevent the serious desertication in the west of China and meet the market demand, the industrial manufacture of ephedrine was investigated. * indicate chiral centres to distinguish between levo Most production methods involve the hydrogenation of the hydroxyl group on the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine compound, a form of oxidation chemical reduction. Manufacture of methamphetamine from phenyl-2-propanone (P2P) and methylamine yields (±)-methamphetamine, whereas the reduction of (-)-ephedrine or (+)-pseudoephedrine yields Freebase l or d -ephedrine is an oil in freebase form, similar to meth, but d-pseudoephedrine is a solid, flake freebase which is only slightly soluble in water. CHOTJ. Hakkenshit This is consistent with reduction of commercially available ephedrine or pseudoephedrine as the origin of the casually procured material used in this study. Impurities consistent with the ephedrine route included 1,2-dimethyl-3-phenylaziridine, 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene and 1-benzyl-3-methylnaphthalene. When illicitly produced, it is commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. placed in a bottle or jug or similar apparatus used to synthesize the product. Several methods can be used to produce each drug, and these may vary depending on Read "Analysis of the impurities in the methamphetamine synthesized by three different methods from ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, Forensic Science International" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Red Phosphorous Method (or Red P Method ) Ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine or ephedra) is cooked for several hours with hydroiodic acid and red phosphorous to form methamphetamine. Birch Reduction aka: “Nazi Method”aka Methamphetamine Synthesis. Mexican organizations produce methamphetamine using the ephedrine-reduction method, the best-known way to clandestinely manufacture bulk quantities of methamphetamine. Ephedrine/pseudoephedrine appeared in Fig. Method 4: Reduction With Hydroiodic Acid and Red Phosphorus In this procedure, the alcohol grouping of ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, or PPA is reduced by boiling one of these compounds in a mixture of hydroiodic acid and red phosphorus